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Geography, An Integrated Approach 3rd ed. Principles of Economics 4th ed. The University of Manchester. Retrieved April 11, British International Studies Association.
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Battlefield 1 Mexiko VideoBattlefield 1 MP TDM: Mexikanische Action-Kampfhühner mit einer Menge Humor Let´s Play #BF1Lachfalsh Many codices made both during Pre-hispanic Mexico and in the Spanish colony are preserved. The zoo is known 888 casino vip clubs its success in breeding programs of threatened species. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empirecities have anmeldebonus casino economic and social opportunities not possible within battlefield 1 mexiko villages. Water supply and sanitation in Mexico. Political and Economic Dynamics. The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;   military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced online casino echtgeld willkommensbonus dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies. This usage has been the subject zasady pokera debate since the late 20th century. The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected herbst regen a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation. Your journey through the promi dart wm 2019 of Battlefield V starts with your Company - where every soldier is unique. Archived from the original on July 23, A History of the Global Darmstadt hsv live. Archived from the original on January 8, This section needs additional citations for verification. As of [update]Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Hide details Show details.
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With an estimated population of over million people,  the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil.
Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City , a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city.
Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec , Toltec , Teotihuacan , Zapotec , Maya , and Aztec before first contact with Europeans.
In , the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan part of Mexico City , which was administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries later, the territory became a nation state following its recognition in after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes.
The Mexican—American War — led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War , the Franco-Mexican War , a civil war , two empires , and the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century.
Mexico has the 15th largest nominal GDP and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity. It is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank  and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.
The suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative , making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit.
The official name of the country has changed as the form of government has changed. On two occasions — and — , the country was known as Imperio Mexicano Mexican Empire.
All three federal constitutions , and , the current constitution used the name Estados Unidos Mexicanos  —or the variant Estados-Unidos Mexicanos ,  all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States".
The earliest human artifacts in Mexico are chips of stone tools found near campfire remains in the Valley of Mexico and radiocarbon-dated to circa 10, years ago.
This enabled the transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers to sedentary agricultural villages beginning around BC. In the subsequent formative eras, maize cultivation and cultural traits such as a mythological and religious complex, and a vigesimal numeric system, were diffused from the Mexican cultures to the rest of the Mesoamerican culture area.
The most powerful rulers had religious and political power, organizing construction of large ceremonial centers developed.
The earliest complex civilization in Mexico was the Olmec culture, which flourished on the Gulf Coast from around BC. Olmec cultural traits diffused through Mexico into other formative-era cultures in Chiapas, Oaxaca and the Valley of Mexico.
The formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. During this period the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures.
The Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic script. Teotihuacan, with a population of more than , people, had some of the largest pyramidal structures in the pre-Columbian Americas.
At this time, during the Epi-Classic, Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages.
Toward the end of the post-Classic period, the Mexica established dominance. In , with the publication of the work of William H.
Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th-century Mexican scholars who considered it a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans.
This usage has been the subject of debate since the late 20th century. The Aztec empire was an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered lands; it was satisfied with the payment of tributes from them.
It was a discontinuous empire because not all dominated territories were connected; for example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in direct contact with the center.
The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire was demonstrated by their restoration of local rulers to their former position after their city-state was conquered.
The Aztec did not interfere in local affairs, as long as the tributes were paid. The Aztec of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mexico.
Along with this practice, they avoided killing enemies on the battlefield. Their warring casualty rate was far lower than that of their Spanish counterparts, whose principal objective was immediate slaughter during battle.
Over the next centuries many Mexican indigenous cultures were gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule by more conquests.
The Spanish first learned of Mexico during the Juan de Grijalva expedition of The natives kept "repeating: After taking control of that city, he moved on to the Aztec capital.
It killed more than 3 million natives as they had no immunity. Any population estimate of pre-Columbian Mexico is bound to be a guess but 8—12 million is often suggested for the area encompassed by the modern nation.
Smallpox was a devastating disease: At first, the Aztecs believed the epidemic was a punishment from an angry god, but they later accepted their fate and no longer resisted the Spanish rule.
The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain in Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico developed during the year colonial period.
The Kingdom of New Spain was created from the remnants of the Aztec hegemonic empire. Subsequent enlargements, such as the conquest of the Tarascan state , resulted in the creation of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in The Viceroyalty at its greatest extent included the territories of modern Mexico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, and the western United States.
The indigenous population stabilized around one to one and a half million individuals in the 17th century from the most commonly accepted five to ten million pre-contact population.
The population decline was primarily the result of communicable diseases, particularly smallpox , introduced during the Columbian Exchange.
During the three hundred years of the colonial era, Mexico received between , and , Europeans, between ,  and , Africans  and between 40, and , Asians.
Colonial law with Spanish roots was introduced and attached to native customs creating a hierarchy between local jurisdiction the Cabildos and the Spanish Crown.
Upper administrative offices were closed to native-born people, even those of pure Spanish blood criollos. Administration was based on the racial separation , among "Republics" of Spaniards, Amerindians and castas , autonomous and directly dependent on the king himself.
The Council of Indies and the mendicant religious orders , which arrived in Mesoamerica as early as , labored to generate capital for the crown of Spain and convert the Amerindian populations to Catholicism.
The Marian apparitions to Saint Juan Diego gave impetus to the evangelization of central Mexico. The Virgin of Guadalupe became a symbol of criollo patriotism  and was used by the insurgents that followed Miguel Hidalgo during the War of Independence.
The rich deposits of silver, particularly in Zacatecas and Guanajuato , resulted in silver extraction dominating the economy of New Spain.
Taxes on silver production became a major source of income for Spain. Other important industries were the haciendas functioning under the encomienda and repartimiento systems and mercantile activities in the main cities and ports.
Wealth created during the colonial era spurred the development of New Spanish Baroque. As a result of its trade links with Asia, the rest of the Americas, Africa and Europe and the profound effect of New World silver , central Mexico was one of the first regions to be incorporated into a globalized economy.
Being at the crossroads of trade, people and cultures, Mexico City has been called the "first world city ". Goods were taken from Veracruz to Atlantic ports in the Americas and Spain.
Veracruz was also the main port of entry in mainland New Spain for European goods, immigrants, and African slaves. Mexican silver pesos became the first globally used currency and the silver mined in Mexico were used to run commerce and wage crusades in two sides of globe, at the Mediterranean were Spain fought against the Ottoman Caliphate and at Southeast Asia where the Philippines fought against the Brunei Sultanate.
Due to the importance of New Spain administrative base, Mexico was the location of the first printing shop , first university , first public park , and first public library in the Americas, amongst other institutions.
The Academy of San Carlos was the first major school and museum of art in the Americas. Spanish forces, sometimes accompanied by native allies, led expeditions to conquer territory or quell rebellions through the colonial era.
Among the best-known pirate attacks are the Sack of Campeche and Attack on Veracruz. Many Mexican cultural features including tequila , first distilled in the 16th century, charreria 17th , mariachi 18th and Mexican cuisine , a fusion of American and European particularly Spanish cuisine, arose during the colonial era.
On September 16, , a "loyalist revolt" against the ruling junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla , in the small town of Dolores , Guanajuato.
Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua , on July 31, Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, The conflicts that arose from the mids had a profound effect because they were widespread and made themselves perceptible in the vast rural areas of the countries, involved clashes between castes, different ethnic groups and haciendas, and entailed a deepening of the political and ideological divisions between republicans and monarchists.
A revolt against him in established the United Mexican States. In , a Republican Constitution was drafted and Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born country.
Central America, including Chiapas, left the union. In president Guerrero abolished slavery. There was constant strife between Liberals, supporters of a federal form of government , and Conservatives, who proposed a hierarchical form of government.
During this period, the frontier borderlands to the north became quite isolated from the government in Mexico City, and its monopolistic economic policies caused suffering.
Resentment built up from California to Texas. Both the mission system and the presidios had collapsed after the Spanish withdrew from the colony, causing great disruption especially in Alta California and New Mexico.
The people in the borderlands had to raise local militias to protect themselves from hostile Native Americans. These areas developed in different directions from the center of the country.
Wanting to stabilize and develop the frontier, Mexico encouraged immigration into present-day Texas, as they were unable to persuade people from central Mexico to move into those areas.
They allowed for religious freedom for the new settlers, who were primarily Protestant English speakers from the United States.
Within several years, the Anglos far outnumbered the Tejano in the area. Itinerant traders traveled through the area, working by free market principles.
The Tejano grew more separate from the government and due to its neglect, many supported the idea of independence and joined movements to that end, collaborating with the English-speaking Americans.
When he suspended the Constitution, civil war spread across the country. Three new governments declared independence: The United States annexation of the Republic of Texas and subsequent American military incursion into territory that was part of Coahuila also claimed by Texas instigated the Mexican—American War.
The war was settled in via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico was forced to give up more than one-third of its land to the U. A much smaller transfer of territory in what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico —known as the Gadsden Purchase —occurred in The new Constitution drafted in established a secular state , federalism as the form of government , and several freedoms.
As the Conservatives refused to recognize it, the Reform War began in , during which both groups had their own governments.
The latter switched sides and joined the Liberals. The period, known as the Porfiriato, was characterized by economic stability and growth, significant foreign investment and influence, investments in the arts and sciences and an expansion of the railroad network and telecommunications.
The Porfirian regime was influenced by positivism. But then he ran for reelection anyway and in a show of U.
That event re-ignited the civil war, involving figures such as Francisco Villa and Emiliano Zapata , who formed their own forces. A third force, the constitutional army led by Venustiano Carranza managed to bring an end to the war, and radically amended the Constitution to include many of the social premises and demands of the revolutionaries into what was eventually called the Constitution.
It is estimated that the war killed , of the population of 15 million. This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March , which nationalized the U.
This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company known as Pemex. Between and , Mexico remained a poor country but experienced substantial economic growth that some historians call the " Mexican miracle ".
That year, oil prices plunged , interest rates soared, and the government defaulted on its debt. President Miguel de la Madrid resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation.
Salinas embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate, controlled inflation, and culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA , which came into effect on January 1, The same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation EZLN started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization.
His political coalition, led by left-wing party MORENA , which was founded after the elections by Andres, includes parties and politicians from all over the political spectrum and also obtained a majority in both the upper and lower congress chambers.
Donald Trump made the construction of a border wall on the U. Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental , which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America.
From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada.
As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca , Greater Mexico City and Puebla.
The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months.
South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall.
Mexico ranks fourth  in the world in biodiversity and is one of the 17 megadiverse countries. In [update] , Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil.
These include 34 biosphere reserves unaltered ecosystems , 67 national parks , 4 natural monuments protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value , 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests and 17 sanctuaries zones rich in diverse species.
The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants.
Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl. Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies.
The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative , democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the Constitution.
The constitution establishes three levels of government: According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: They also have their own civil and judicial codes.
The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union , composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Congress makes federal law , declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.
The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation.
Of these, are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts the federal electoral districts and are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists  for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies.
Of these, 64 senators two for each state and two for Mexico City are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up one for each state and one for Mexico City , and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists.
The executive is the President of the United Mexican States , who is the head of state and government , as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces.
The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills.
The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice , the national supreme court , which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal , collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.
Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities.
Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties.
While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods.
Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.
Drug cartels are a major concern in Mexico. More than journalists and media workers have been killed or disappeared since , and most of these crimes remained unsolved, improperly investigated, and with few perpetrators arrested and convicted.
The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico  and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In addition, since the s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods  with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club.
After the War of Independence , the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner ,  and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs.
The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics;   military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.
In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms,  missiles,  aircraft,  vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics,  defense systems,  armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.
Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts,  with the exception of World War II.
However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions , or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it.
The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City and other territories.
Each state has its own constitution, congress , and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms.
Mexico City is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state.
Formerly known as the Federal District, its autonomy was previously limited relative to that of the states. The states are divided into municipalities , the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president presidente municipal , elected by its residents by plurality.
GDP annual average growth for the period of — was 5. After the slowdown of the country has recovered and has grown 4.
Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs , by Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world. The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade.
Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation. The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.
Other players in the domestic industry are Axtel and Maxcom. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines.
The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.
Energy production in Mexico is managed by the state-owned companies Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex. It is expected that in there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels.
At an installed capacity of The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in ,  and the university became one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico.
Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from to In , the Mexican chemist Mario J.
Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Mexico has traditionally been among the most visited countries in the world according to the World Tourism Organization and it is the most visited country in the Americas after the United States.
The most notable attractions are the Mesoamerican ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts.
The peak tourism seasons in the country are during December and the mid-Summer, with brief surges during the week before Easter and Spring break , when many of the beach resort sites become popular destinations for college students from the United States.
As of , Mexico was the 6th most visited country in the world and had the 15th highest income from tourism in the world which is also the highest in Latin America.
A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries. The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sunbathers and other visitors.
According to national law , the entirety of the coastlines are under federal ownership, that is, all beaches in the country are public. Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres , and to the east is the Isla Holbox.
In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins. On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco.
Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors.
Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas , a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing.
The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it. Other achievements include the existence of a functioning national system to finance water and sanitation infrastructure with a National Water Commission as its apex institution; and the existence of a few well-performing utilities such as Aguas y Drenaje de Monterrey.
In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment.
Throughout the 19th century, the population of Mexico had barely doubled. This trend continued during the first two decades of the 20th century, and even in the census there was a loss of about 2 million inhabitants.
The phenomenon can be explained because during the decade from to the Mexican Revolution took place. The Mexican population doubled in twenty years, and at that rate it was expected that by the year there would be million Mexicans.
Life expectancy went from 36 years in to 72 years in the year As a result, since the only explicit ethnic classification that has been included in Mexican censuses has been that of "Indigenous peoples".
It is not until very recently that the Mexican government begun conducting surveys that considered the Afro-Mexican and Euro-Mexican population that lives in the country.
As of [update] , it is estimated that 1. Mexico is ethnically diverse; with people of several ethnicities being united under a single national identity.
The large majority of Mexicans have historically been classified as " Mestizos ". In modern Mexican usage, the term mestizo is primarily a cultural identity rather than the racial identity it was during the colonial era, resulting in individuals with varying phenotypes being classified under the same identity, regardless of whether they are of mixed ancestry or not.
Many practice subsistence agriculture and regulate some internal issues under customary law. Similarly to Mestizo and Indigenous peoples, estimations for the percentage of European-descended Mexicans within the Mexican population vary considerably: The Afro-Mexican population 1,, individuals as of [update]  is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent.
Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and some , Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century.
Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the inter-census, It was also reported that 9.
During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs mostly Christians  began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated , Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry.
During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino regardless of ethnicity , and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves.
The first census in Mexico then known as New Spain that included an ethnic classification was the census. Also known as the Revillagigedo census. Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt.
The total population ranged from 3,, to 6,, In recent times the Mexican government has decided to conduct new ethnic surveys and censuses, also widening the criteria to classify the ethnicities who were already considered such as the Indigenous Mexican one, which was previously reserved to people who lived in indigenous communities or spoke an indigenous language.
In the early s, around , Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the s to 4. The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well.
The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and varieties of indigenous languages. Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,strong Menonite population , primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions.
It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels.
The s was marked by a religious conflict known as the Cristero War , in which many peasants encouraged by the clergy clashed with the federal government that had decided to enforce the constitutional laws of Among the measures contemplated by the Magna Carta were the suppression of the monastic orders and the cancellation of all religious worship.
The war ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict Catholic Church and State , by means of which the respective fields of action were defined.
Until the middle of the s, the Mexican constitution did not recognize the existence of any religious group.
In , a law was enacted whereby the State granted them legal status as "religious associations". This fact allowed the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See , to which the Mexican State did not recognize as a political entity.
According to the figures of INEGI , most Mexicans declare themselves Christian and most Catholics almost 93 million adherents according to the census of The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities.
In fact, Pentecostal churches together have more than 1. The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities.
Migratory phenomena have led to the proliferation of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants , Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church.
According to Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , it is remarkable the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups, not only in the current indigenous people but in the mestizos and whites that make up the Mexican rural and urban society.
There is often a syncretism between shamanism and the Catholic tradition. Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new.
In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity. It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues.
The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images. In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages.
A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute SIL , in the year , which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.
The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL.
Conflicts have also occurred in other areas of social life. This type of problem can only be solved with the intervention of the National Commission of Human Rights , and not always with favorable results for children.
The impact of the Catholic religion in Mexico has also caused a fusion of elements. Beyond churches and religious denominations, a phenomenon persists in Mexico that some anthropologists and sociologists call "popular religion", that is, religion as the practice and understanding of the people.
In Mexico, the main component is the Catholic religion, to which elements of other beliefs have been added, already of pre-Hispanic, African or Asian origin.
In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead Santa Muerte.
The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the White Child and the adoration of God.
Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead , which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists.
In the census 18, Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion ,  a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire , cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages.
As of [update] , Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed.
The Porfirian era el Porfiriato , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace.
Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution , cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje , of which the indigenous i.
Amerindian element is the core. The painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. The cave painting in Mexican territory is about years old, and has been manifested in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula.
Pre-Hispanic Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices , in ceramics , in garments, etc. The mural painting had an important flowering during the 16th century, the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman , Actopan , Huejotzingo , Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec.
It is said that they were mainly indigenous painters led by friars who made them. For a time it was believed that the first European painter living in New Spain was Rodrigo de Cifuentes , an apocryphal artist who even came to be attributed works such as The Baptism of the Caciques de Tlaxcala , painting of the main altarpiece of the Convent of San Francisco in Tlaxcala.
Among the native painters was Marcos Aquino. The religiosity of the Novohispanos "New-spanish" made that the painting was important for the evangelization of the society, the friars realized the graphic skills of the natives, who enriched the baroque and mannerist style.
The painting of the 19th century had a very marked romantic influence, landscapes and portraits were the greatest expression of this era. Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art.
The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of an ancestral and modern culture, freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.
Some of the most outstanding painters in the 21st century current painters: She studied painting in Beijing. Her work, of marked oriental influence, recalls the cut paper figures of Mexico and China, mixing them with a rich chromatic range; Eliseo Garza Aguilar , painter and performer considered among the leading exponents of the provocative and reflective art of the Third Millennium; in search of a critical response from the spectators, he combines his pictorial work in the performances with theatrical histrionics; Pilar Goutas , a painter who uses oil on amate support, with strong influence from Jackson Pollock and Chinese calligraphy ; Rafael Torres Correa settles his residence in Mexico in and joins the contemporary art workshop "La Polilla" in Guadalajara , and performs various plastic and scenographic projects.
Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico.
From the Spanish conquest, civil and religious sculpture is worked by indigenous artists, with guidance from teachers of the peninsula, so some pre-Hispanic features are shown.
Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism. Romanticism tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, as it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism.
The religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature.
Between and the predominant themes were, successively: The transcendent was to introduce civil reasons, the first national types and glimpses of a current of self-expression.
The presence of the human being in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man.
The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes ; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced. Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture.
The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl: Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies.
Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture.
The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols.
The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations.
The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.
In ethnic and cultural terms, Lo mexicano corresponds only to everything that is referred to the Aztec culture; therefore, ethnically Mexicans are those who are also known as Nahuas and whose language is Nahuatl.
In legal terms and in accordance with the Constitution , Mexican is a citizen born within the territory of the United Mexican States or whoever has decided adopt the Mexican citizenship.
The Mexican could be what characterizes the being of Mexico and its people; however, it is an ethnic concept that only defines the mestizo identity that had been related for a long time and that is limited with respect to the ethnic diversity of the country.
It is an intellectual construction product of the approaches of specialists to the cultural reality of the country.
In trying to capture in a single figure the multicultural reality of Mexico, the result of the intellectual analysis has produced a series of stereotypes and truisms about what it is to be a Mexican.
This discourse about The Mexican has been used in the political field to legitimize power, and at the same time it is imposed on the population of the country as a fact beyond all doubt.
The intellectual construction of the mestizo is in dialogue with the triumph of revolutionary nationalism, which was born after the Mexican Revolution.
In the reflection on the subject the character of the Mexican, the mexicanity, the definition of a Mexican have participated, among others: Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.
The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica.
Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt.
Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.
Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.
Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars.
There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television.
Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture.
Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.
The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonization, being a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients.
Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate.
With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans.
From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods.
It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century.
By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence. The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol.
While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.
Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela.
Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico is an international power in professional boxing at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico.
The current coat of arms of Mexico Spanish: It depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a rattlesnake.
Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U.
Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
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